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纽约:故意“高抛者”追刑责、民事赔偿

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月24日 10:31:02
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(  晨)(报)(特)(约)(记)(者)( 袁)( 博)( 发)(自)(纽)(约)(
  作)(为)(摩)(天)(大)(楼)(发)(源)(地)(的)(美)(国)(纽)(约)(,上)(世)(纪)(40年)(代)(到)(60年)(代)(前)(后)(,高)(空)(抛)(物)(现)(象)(也)(曾)(一)(度)(高)(发)(,情)(况)(跟)(现)(在)(的)(上)(海)(颇)(为)(类)(似)(。司)(法)(界)(也)(曾)(束)(手)(无)(策)(,处)(理)(如)(何)(避)(免)(高)(空)(坠)(物)(伤)(人)(案)(件)(成)(为)(让)(法)(官)(们)(大)(伤)(脑)(筋)(的)(事)(。同)(时)(,这)(也)(是)(政)(府)(管)(理)(者)(、大)(楼)(管)(理)(者)(、设)(计)(者)(与)(建)(设)(者)(都)(不)(得)(不)(面)(对)(的)(一)(大)(难)(题)(。然)(而)(,近)(些)(年)(该)(现)(象)(在)(纽)(约)(几)(乎)(销)(声)(匿)(迹)(。是)(什)(么)(手)(段)(让)(纽)(约)(治)(理)(好)(了)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(?
  建)(筑)(设)(计)(
  高)(层)(住)(宅)(大)(多)(没)(阳)(台)(
  在)(纽)(约)(,从)(高)(楼)(的)(设)(计)(,到)(建)(成)(后)(的)(装)(饰)(,都)(尽)(可)(能)(降)(低)(发)(生)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(的)(风)(险)(。
  纽)(约)(很)(多)(高)(楼)(的)(窗)(户)(不)(能)(打)(开)(,只)(供)(采)(光)(。有)(些)(高)(楼)(,虽)(然)(窗)(户)(能)(够)(打)(开)(,但)(只)(能)(打)(开)(较)(小)(的)(缝)(隙)(,小)(得)(甚)(至)(连)(一)(只)(胳)(膊)(都)(不)(能)(伸)(过)(。
  此)(外)(,纽)(约)(的)(住)(宅)(大)(楼)(不)(像)(上)(海)(,阳)(台)(属)(于)(标)(配)(。在)(纽)(约)(,不)(仅)(写)(字)(楼)(不)(含)(阳)(台)(,且)(住)(宅)(楼)(也)(大)(都)(没)(有)(阳)(台)(,对)(于)(含)(有)(简)(易)(阳)(台)(的)(住)(宅)(楼)(,也)(不)(允)(许)(在)(阳)(台)(摆)(放)(任)(何)(物)(品)(。
  纽)(约)(专)(门)(从)(事)(意)(外)(伤)(害)(赔)(偿)(诉)(讼)(的)(律)(师)(戴)(禺)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,纽)(约)(摩)(天)(大)(楼)(从)(设)(计)(者)(到)(建)(设)(者)(直)(至)(管)(理)(者)(,在)(大)(楼)(的)(结)(构)(设)(计)(及)(管)(理)(方)(面)(都)(采)(取)(了)(有)(针)(对)(性)(的)(措)(施)(,大)(大)(降)(低)(了)(发)(生)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(的)(隐)(患)(。
  如)(记)(者)(所)(住)(的)(曼)(哈)(顿)(高)(层)(住)(宅)(公)(寓)(,在)(租)(赁)(合)(同)(上)(就)(有)(严)(格)(的)(规)(定)(,不)(允)(许)(私)(自)(登)(上)(楼)(顶)(露)(台)(,大)(楼)(公)(共)(区)(域)(不)(允)(许)(放)(置)(任)(何)(私)(人)(物)(品)(,也)(不)(允)(许)(在)(大)(楼)(公)(共)(区)(域)(和)(自)(家)(阳)(台)(晾)(晒)(衣)(物)(等)(。此)(外)(,在)(合)(同)(条)(目)(中)(还)(专)(门)(规)(定)(,对)(于)(拥)(有)(阳)(台)(的)(公)(寓)(,必)(须)(保)(持)(阳)(台)(的)(清)(洁)(,不)(允)(许)(阳)(台)(上)(发)(现)(积)(雪)(、结)(冰)(、落)(叶)(、垃)(圾)(等)(杂)(物)(,不)(允)(许)(在)(阳)(台)(进)(行)(烧)(烤)(等)(活)(动)(,保)(持)(阳)(台)(的)(墙)(面)(、排)(水)(等)(设)(施)(处)(于)(正)(常)(状)(态)(等)(。另)(外)(还)(在)(房)(屋)(租)(赁)(合)(同)(中)(专)(门)(设)(置)(一)(份)(内)(置)(合)(同)(,如)(果)(有)(10岁)(以)(下)(的)(儿)(童)(,必)(须)(无)(条)(件)(安)(装)(窗)(户)(安)(全)(保)(护)(装)(置)(。
  此)(外)(,许)(多)(建)(筑)(商)(在)(建)(住)(宅)(时)(,通)(常)(不)(在)(临)(街)(一)(边)(设)(计)(阳)(台)(,高)(层)(建)(筑)(的)(窗)(户)(下)(边)(一)(般)(也)(留)(有)(一)(块)(空)(地)(,与)(街)(道)(保)(持)(一)(段)(距)(离)(,即)(使)(有)(人)(不)(慎)(丢)(下)(某)(些)(物)(件)(,如)(果)(不)(是)(有)(意)(掷)(向)(某)(个)(目)(标)(,通)(常)(不)(会)(伤)(害)(到)(人)(。
  重)(罚)(措)(施)(
  未)(造)(成)(伤)(害)(也)(是)(犯)(罪)(
  纽)(约)(在)(经)(历)(了)(上)(世)(纪)(40年)(代)(至)(60年)(代)(的)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(潮)(之)(后)(,很)(快)(就)(有)(效)(扼)(制)(了)(这)(一)(现)(象)(。那)(么)(,纽)(约)(是)(如)(何)(制)(止)(这)(类)(“抛)(客)(”的)(行)(为)(呢)(?很)(重)(要)(的)(一)(个)(方)(面)(是)(,纽)(约)(的)(司)(法)(界)(对)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(秉)(持)(一)(贯)(的)(态)(度)(:重)(罚)(。
  在)(美)(国)(的)(很)(多)(州)(,高)(空)(抛)(物)(被)(视)(为)(危)(害)(公)(共)(安)(全)(,即)(使)(未)(造)(成)(危)(害)(,也)(视)(为)(一)(种)(犯)(罪)(。在)(民)(事)(赔)(偿)(时)(,法)(官)(对)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(的)(重)(罚)(、重)(赔)(,远)(超)(公)(众)(想)(象)(。美)(国)(法)(官)(有)(一)(个)(共)(识)(:如)(不)(对)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(施)(加)(重)(罚)(,就)(不)(足)(以)(阻)(止)(那)(些)(随)(意)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(的)(“抛)(客)(”。
  对)(于)(高)(空)(坠)(物)(伤)(人)(案)(件)(的)(法)(律)(责)(任)(,曾)(任)(纽)(约)(市)(警)(察)(局)(副)(局)(长)(、有)(着)(多)(年)(律)(师)(从)(业)(经)(历)(的)(莫)(虎)(在)(接)(受)(记)(者)(采)(访)(时)(称)(,对)(于)(高)(空)(坠)(物)(伤)(人)(事)(件)(,首)(先)(要)(分)(清)(事)(件)(性)(质)(,如)(果)(非)(人)(为)(故)(意)(为)(之)(,则)(由)(房)(屋)(所)(有)(人)(承)(担)(赔)(偿)(责)(任)(,一)(般)(是)(由)(该)(房)(屋)(所)(投)(保)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(进)(行)(赔)(偿)(; 如)(果)(是)(人)(为)(故)(意)(抛)(物)(伤)(人)(,则)(由)(警)(方)(查)(清)(责)(任)(人)(,再)(进)(行)(刑)(事)(和)(民)(事)(方)(面)(的)(追)(究)(。他)(还)(表)(示)(,对)(于)(故)(意)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(伤)(人)(,与)(持)(凶)(器)(故)(意)(伤)(人)(没)(什)(么)(两)(样)(,都)(属)(于)(刑)(事)(追)(究)(处)(罚)(的)(范)(围)(。上)(世)(纪)(中)(叶)(美)(国)(确)(实)(处)(于)(此)(类)(案)(件)(的)(高)(发)(期)(,但)(经)(过)(长)(期)(的)(治)(理)(,近)(几)(十)(年)(来)(,此)(类)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(案)(件)(几)(乎)(销)(声)(匿)(迹)(,“在)(我)(从)(事)(律)(师)(工)(作)(近)(四)(十)(年)(的)(时)(间)(里)(,从)(未)(遇)(到)(过)(故)(意)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(伤)(人)(的)(案)(件)(。”
  莫)(虎)(律)(师)(还)(表)(示)(,高)(空)(抛)(物)(伤)(人)(案)(销)(声)(匿)(迹)(的)(原)(因)(主)(要)(是)(美)(国)(社)(会)(治)(理)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(的)(若)(干)(原)(则)(产)(生)(了)(一)(定)(的)(作)(用)(:先)(刑)(事)(后)(民)(事)(,穷)(尽)(刑)(事)(侦)(查)(权)(,对)(于)(证)(据)(充)(分)(、加)(害)(人)(明)(确)(的)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(案)(惩)(罚)(重)(、赔)(偿)(高)(。此)(外)(,社)(会)(防)(范)(的)(技)(术)(安)(排)(处)(于)(优)(先)(地)(位)(,再)(加)(上)(合)(理)(的)(社)(会)(救)(济)(。
  此)(外)(,在)(美)(国)(如)(果)(没)(有)(尽)(到)(“注)(意)(义)(务)(”也)(要)(受)(罚)(。在)(高)(空)(坠)(物)(案)(件)(中)(,美)(国)(法)(官)(经)(常)(使)(用)(的)(一)(个)(词)(叫)(“注)(意)(义)(务)(”。法)(官)(认)(为)(,如)(果)(一)(个)(人)(由)(于)(过)(失)(或)(疏)(忽)(而)(没)(有)(尽)(到)(“注)(意)(义)(务)(”导)(致)(人)(员)(伤)(亡)(或)(财)(产)(损)(失)(,他)(应)(承)(担)(相)(应)(的)(责)(任)(。
  按)(照)(纽)(约)(州)(的)(法)(律)(,业)(主)(对)(某)(些)(由)(于)(自)(然)(或)(天)(气)(等)(情)(况)(导)(致)(的)(侵)(权)(事)(故)(是)(免)(责)(的)(,如)(业)(主)(不)(需)(要)(为)(建)(筑)(物)(旁)(人)(行)(道)(上)(自)(然)(结)(成)(的)(冰)(导)(致)(行)(人)(滑)(倒)(而)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。但)(是)(,如)(因)(过)(失)(或)(疏)(忽)(而)(使)(得)(从)(其)(屋)(顶)(流)(下)(的)(水)(在)(人)(行)(道)(上)(结)(成)(冰)(而)(造)(成)(人)(员)(伤)(亡)(,那)(么)(就)(可)(能)(要)(承)(担)(相)(关)(责)(任)(了)(。
  另)(悉)(,上)(个)(世)(纪)(五)(六)(十)(年)(代)(,美)(国)(法)(官)(相)(继)(判)(决)(了)(几)(起)(重)(要)(案)(件)(,对)(公)(众)(产)(生)(了)(较)(大)(的)(影)(响)(。比)(如)(,美)(国)(迈)(阿)(密)(曾)(判)(决)(了)(一)(起)(高)(空)(抛)(物)(案)(,当)(时)(,原)(告)(在)(街)(上)(行)(走)(时)(被)(附)(近)(楼)(房)(扔)(出)(的)(一)(个)(瓶)(子)(砸)(中)(,原)(告)(受)(伤)(并)(不)(重)(,但)(是)(,秉)(持)(重)(罚)(重)(赔)(的)(原)(则)(,法)(官)(后)(来)(判)(决)(被)(告)(赔)(偿)(很)(大)(一)(笔)(金)(钱)(。更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,这)(起)(案)(件)(并)(没)(有)(被)(警)(察)(侦)(破)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(,并)(没)(有)(明)(确)(的)(加)(害)(者)(。
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